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List of all Chief Guests on Indian Republic Day Parades (1950–2020)

Indian government invites a foreign leader every year on the occasion of Republic day parade. This year Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro will be the chief guest of republic day parade 2020. Pakistan’s Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad was the first person who attended the Republic day parade as the chief guest at Rajpath, New Delhi.

Republic day Parade celebration

Republic day Parade celebration

India an independent, sovereign and democratic country implemented its constitution on 26 January 1950. Now India is a democratic Republic that celebrates a grand ceremony on the 26 January every year to commemorate the day. 

The initial four Republic day parades were held at different places (Red Fort, Ramlila Grounds, Irwin Stadium, Kingsway) between 1950 to 1954. But the first celebration was held at Rajpath in 1955.


The Indonesian President Sukarno was the first Chief guest on the very first Republic Day parade of India. Representatives from the United Kingdom and France have been invited 5 times each.

Let’s have a look on the list of all the Chief Guests at Republic day parade;

YearGuest NameCountry
1950President SukarnoIndonesia
1951King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah     Nepal
1952No invitation —
1953No invitation —
1954King Jigme Dorji WangchuckBhutan
1955Governor General Malik Ghulam MuhammadPakistan
1956Chancellor of the Exchequer R. A. ButlerChief Justice Kotaro Tanaka   United KingdomJapan
1957Minister of Defence Georgy Zhukov   Soviet Union
1958Marshall Ye Jianying  China
1959Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip   United Kingdom
1960President Kliment VoroshilovUSSR
1961Queen Elizabeth IIUnited Kingdom
1962Prime Minister Viggo Kampmann   Denmark
1963King Norodom SihanoukCambodia
1964Chief of Defence Staff Lord Louis Mountbatten   United Kingdom
1965Food and Agriculture Minister Rana Abdul HamidPakistan
1966No invitation No invitation
1967King Mohammed Zahir Shah   Afghanistan
1968Prime Minister Alexei KosyginUSSR
President Josip Broz Tito SFR Yugoslavia
1969Prime Minister of Bulgaria Todor ZhivkovBulgaria
1970King of the Belgians Baudouin   Belgium
1971President Julius NyerereTanzania
1972Prime Minister Seewoosagur RamgoolamMauritius
1973President Mobutu Sese SekoZaire
1974President Josip Broz TitoSFR Yugoslavia
Prime Minister Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias BandaranaikeSri Lanka
1975President Kenneth KaundaZambia
1976Prime Minister Jacques ChiracFrance
1977First Secretary Edward GierekPoland
1978President Patrick HilleryIreland
1979Prime Minister Malcolm FraserAustralia
1980President Valéry Giscard d’EstaingFrance
1981President José López PortilloMexico
1982King Juan Carlos ISpain
1983President Shehu ShagariNigeria
1984King Jigme Singye WangchuckBhutan
1985President Raúl AlfonsínArgentina
1986Prime Minister Andreas PapandreouGreece
1987President Alan GarcíaPeru
1988President Junius JayewardeneSri Lanka
1989General Secretary Nguyen Van LinhViet Nam
1990Prime Minister Anerood JugnauthMauritius
1991President Maumoon Abdul GayoomMaldives
1992President Mário SoaresPortugal
1993Prime Minister John MajorUnited Kingdom
1994Prime Minister Goh Chok TongSingapore
1995President Nelson MandelaSouth Africa
1996President Dr. Fernando Henrique CardosoBrazil
1997Prime Minister Basdeo PandayTrinidad and Tobago
1998President Jacques ChiracFrance
1999King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah DevNepal
2000President Olusegun ObasanjoNigeria
2001President Abdelaziz BouteflikaAlgeria
2002President Cassam UteemMauritius
2003President Mohammed KhatamiIran
2004President Luiz Inacio Lula da SilvaBrazil
2005King Jigme Singye WangchuckBhutan
2006King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud[Saudi Arabia
2007President Vladimir PutinRussia
2008President Nicolas SarkozyFrance
2009President Nursultan NazarbayevKazakhstan
2010President Lee Myung BakRepublic of Korea
2011President Susilo Bambang YudhoyonoIndonesia
2012Prime Minister Yingluck ShinawatraThailand
2013King of Bhutan Jigme Khesar Namgyel WangchuckBhutan
2014Prime Minister Shinzo AbeJapan
2015President Barack ObamaUnited States
2016President François HollandeFrance
2017Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin ZayedUnited Arab Emirates
2018Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
Joko Widodo
Thongloun Sisoulith
Prime Minister Hun Sen
Najib Razak
President Htin Kyaw
Rodrigo Roa Duterte
Halimah Yacob
Prayuth Chan-ocha
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
2019President Cyril Ramaphosa  South Africa
2020President Jair BolsonaroBrazil

The main purpose of inviting a foreign leader is to boost the bilateral relations and to show the diversity and prosperity of the Indian culture.

List of all 400+ Team scores in the cricket ODI matches

The first One-day International match was played between Australia and England on 5 January 1971. Since then the first 400+ plus was scored by the Australian team in 2006. As on January 2020, 21 scores have been chalked out in the ODI cricket by 6 teams. In this article, we have published the list of all 400+ ODI scores.

List of all 400+ Team scores in the ODI matches;

ScoreTeam (Time)Opponent
434/4  Australia (2005–06)South Africa
438/9  South Africa (2005–06)Australia
443/9Sri Lanka (2006)Netherlands
418/5  South Africa (2006–07)Zimbabwe
413/5  India (2007)Bermuda
402/2  New Zealand (2008)Ireland
414/7  India (2009–10)Sri Lanka
411/8  Sri Lanka (2009–10)India
401/3  India (2009–10)South Africa
418/5India (2011–12)West Indies
404/5  India (2014–15)Sri Lanka
439/2  South Africa (2014–15)West Indies
408/5  South Africa (2014–15)West Indies
411/4  South Africa (2014–15)Ireland
417/6  Australia  (2014–15)Afghanistan
408/9  England (2015)New Zealand
438/4  South Africa (2015–16)India
444/3  England (2016)Pakistan
481/6  England (2018)Australia
418/6England  (2018–19)West Indies
421  West Indies(2019)New Zealand

Indian team’s highest score in ODI

The first 400+ score of the Indian team was against Bermuda in world cup 2007. Indian team scored 413/5 with the help of 114 runs by Sehwag, 89 by Sourav Ganguly and 83 runs by Yuvraj Singh.

The highest score of the Indian team in ODI is 418/5. The Indian team had scored these runs with the help of a double century by Virender Sehwag. He scored his career-best 219 runs in this match played at Indore on Dec 8, 2011.

Some interesting records about 400+ score;

1. Till date, 6 teams have scored 400+ run mark in ODIs on 21 occasions.

2. South Africa is the only team that has scored 400+ runs in ODIs 6 times and winning all matches.

3. The Indian team has scored 400+ runs on five occasions and won all matches.

4. England team has scored 400+ runs on five occasions and won all matches.

5. Australian and Sri Lanka team have scored 400+ on just 2 occasions, losing one and winning one.

6. New Zealand & West Indies are the other two teams that also have scored 400+ score one time each.

So this was the complete list of all 400+ scores in the ODI matches. I hope the Indian team will supercede South Africa and register the most number of 400 plus scores in the ODI cricket.

List of Famous Indian mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India

Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space and change. The Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Mahāvīra, Bhaskara II, Madhava of Sangamagrama and Nilakantha Somayaji are classical Indian mathematician whose contribution made immortal. Here, we are giving the list of Indian mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India with their contribution.

Famous Indian mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India

Famous Indian mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India

Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space and change. The Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Mahavira, Bhaskara II, Madhava of Sangamagrama, Nilakantha Somayaji etc. are classical Indian mathematician and their contribution in mathematics made them immortal. For example- decimal number system, concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry etc. From ancient to the Medieval India, the mathematical works were composed in Sanskrit especially consists of sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated.

Here, we are giving the list of Indian mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India with their contribution.

1. Baudhayana

Born: Around 800 BC

Notable Work: Approximation of the square root of 2 and the statement of a version of the Pythagorean Theorem

2. Katyayana

Born: Around 300 BC

Notable Work: Varttika, Vyakarana, later Sulba Sutras

3. Pingala

Born: Around 500 BC

Notable Work: Matrameru, binary numeral system, arithmetical triangle

4. Aryabhata

Born: Between 476-550 CE

Notable works: Aryabhaṭiya, Arya-siddhanta

Notable Ideas: Explanation of lunar eclipse and solar eclipse, rotation of Earth on its axis, reflection of light by moon, sinusoidal functions, solution of single variable quadratic equation, value of π correct to 4 decimal places, circumference of Earth to 99.8% accuracy, calculation of the length of sidereal year.

5. Varahamihira

Born: Between 505–587 CE

Notable Work: Pancha-Siddhāntikā, Brihat-Samhita, Brihat Jataka

6. Yativrsabha

Born: Around 6th-century CE

Known for: Mathematician and writer of the book Tiloyapannatti which gives various units for measuring distances and time and postulated different concepts about infinity

7. Brahmagupta

Born: Between 598–670 CE

Known for: Zero, Modern number system, Brahmagupta’s theorem, Brahmagupta’s identity, Brahmagupta’s problem, Brahmagupta-Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta’s interpolation formula, Brahmagupta’s formula

8. Bhaskara I

Born: Between 600–680 CE

Known for: Sine approximation formula

9. Shridhara

Born: Between 650–850 CE

Contribution: Gave a rule for finding the volume of a sphere

10. Mahavira

Born: 9th century CE

Notable Work: His work is a highly syncopated approach to algebra and the emphasis in much of his text is on developing the techniques necessary to solve algebraic problems.

11. Pavuluri Mallana

Born: 11th century CE

Notable Work: He translated Ganitasara Samgraham, a mathematical treatise of Mahivaracharya, into Telugu as Sara Sangraha Ganitamu.

12. Bhaskara II

Born: 1114–1185 CE

Known for: Discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations

13. Narayana Pandit

Born: Between 1340–1400 CE

Notable Work: Arithmetical treatise called Ganita Kaumudi ; Algebraic treatise called Bijganita Vatamsa

14. Madhava of Sangamagrama

Born: 1340-1350 CE

Known for: Discovery of power series expansions of trigonometric sine, cosine and arctangent functions

Notable work: Golavada, Madhyamanayanaprakara, Venvaroha

15. Parameshvara

Born: Between AD 1360–1455

Notable Work: Discovered drk-ganita, a mode of astronomy based on observations

16. Nilakantha Somayaji

Born: Around AD1444

Notable Work: Golasara, Candrachayaganita, Aryabhatiya-bhashya, Tantrasamgraha Raghunatha Siromani

17. Shankara Variyar

Born: Around AD1530

Notable Work: Yukti-dipika – an extensive commentary in verse on Tantrasamgraha based on Yuktibhasa; Laghu-vivrti – a short commentary in prose on Tantrasamgraha; Kriya-kramakari – a lengthy prose commentary on Lilavati of Bhaskara II

18. Jyeshtadeva

Born: Around AD1500

Known for: Authorship of Yuktibhaṣa

Notable work: Yuktibhāṣā, Drkkarana

19. Munishvara

Born: Around 17th century

Notable Work: Produced accurate sine tables

20. Kamalakara

Born: Around AD 1657

Notable Work: Combined traditional Indian astronomy with Aristotelian physics and Ptolemaic astronomy as presented by Islamic scientists; Given formulae for sin(A/2) and sin(A/4) in terms of sin(A) and iterative formulae for sin(A/3) and sin(A/5); Given a table for finding the right ascension of a planet from its longitude.

21. Jagannatha Samrat

Born: Around AD1730

Notable Work: Siddhanta-samrat, Yantra-prakara

22. Radhanath Sikdar

Born: Around 1813 AD

Known for: Calculated height of Mount Everest

23. Pathani Samanta

Born: 11 January, 1835-36 AD

Known for: Naked eye astronomy

24. Ganesh Prasad

Born: 15 November, 1876 AD

Known for: Establishing the culture of organised mathematical research in India

Notable work: A Treatise on Spherical Harmonics and the Functions of Bessel and Lame

25. Srinivasa Ramanujan

Born: 22 December 1887

Known for: Landau–Ramanujan constant; Mock theta functions; Ramanujan conjecture; Ramanujan prime; Ramanujan–Soldner constant; Ramanujan theta function; Ramanujan’s sum; Rogers–Ramanujan identities; Ramanujan’s master theorem

26. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis

Born: 29 June 1893

Known for: Mahalanobis distance Feldman–Mahalanobis model

27. Subbayya Sivasankaranarayana Pillai

Born: April 5, 1901

Known for: Pillai’s conjecture; Pillai’s arithmetical function; Pillai prime

28. Raj Chandra Bose

Born: 19 June 1901

Known for: Association scheme; Bose–Mesner algebra; Euler’s conjecture on Latin squares; strongly regular graphs; Partial Geometries; Morse code

29. Samarendra Nath Roy

Born: 11 December 1906

Known for: Multivariate analysis

30. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Born: 19 October 1910

Known for: Chandrasekhar limit; Chandra X-ray Observatory; Chandrasekhar friction; Chandrasekhar number; Chandrasekhar tensor; Chandrasekhar equation; Chandrasekhar virial equations; Chandrasekhar’s Variational Principle; 1958 Chandra; Schonberg–Chandrasekhar limit

31. S. S. Shrikhande

Born: 19 October 1917

Known for: Euler’s conjecture

32. Prahladbhai Chunilal Vaidya

Born: 23 May 1918

Known for: Vaidya Metric, Vaidya–Patel solution, Einstein field equations

33. Anil Kumar Gain

Born: 1 February 1919

Known for: Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient Vidyasagar University

34. C. R. Rao

Born: 10 September 1920

Known for: Cramér–Rao bound, Rao–Blackwell theorem, Orthogonal arrays, Score test

35. Harish chandra

Born: 11 October 1923

Known for: Harish-Chandra’s c-function;Harish-Chandra’s character formula; Harish-Chandra homomorphism; Harish-Chandra isomorphism; Harish-Chandra module; Harish-Chandra’s regularity theorem; Harish-Chandra’s Schwartz space; Harish Chandra transform; Harish-Chandra’s Ξ function

36. Raghu Raj Bahadur

Born: 30 April 1924

Known for: Bahadur efficiency; Anderson–Bahadur algorithm; Bahadur-Ghosh-Kiefer representation

37. Gopinath Kallianpur

Born: April 25, 1925

Known for: Fisher consistency

38. Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar

Born: July 22, 1930

Known for: Abhyankar’s conjecture, Abhyankar’s lemma, Abhyankar–Moh theorem

39. C.S. Seshadri

Born: February 29, 1932

Known for: Seshadri constant; Narasimhan–Seshadri theorem;standard monomial theory

40. K. S. S. Nambooripad

Born: 6 April 1935

41. Vinod Behari Johri

Born: 10 June 1935

Known for: Power law inflation in Brans–Dicke theory; Theory of integrated tracking of quintessence fields of dark energy;Phantom cosmologies

42. K. R. Parthasarathy

Born: 25 June 1936

Known for: Quantum stochastic calculus

43. Veeravalli S. Varadarajan

Born: May 1937

Known for: Trombi–Varadarajan theorem

44. Vasanti N. Nayak

Born: 10 June 1938

Known for: Combinatorial design and Graph Theory

45. Srinivasa Varadhan

Born: 2 January 1940

Known for: Martingale problems; large deviation theory

46. Vashishtha Narayan Singh

Born: April 2, 1942

Known for: Reproducing Kernels and Operators with a Cyclic Vector

47. Siddani Bhaskara Rao

Born: 1943

Known for: Frequency partition,Line graphs, Degree sequences

48. N. M. Singhi

Born: 1949

Known for: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

Sujatha Ramdorai

Known for: non-commutative Iwasawa theory, Arithmetic of Algebraic varieties

49. Narendra Krishna Karmarkar

Born: 1957

Known for: Karmarkar’s algorithm

50. Manindra Agrawal

Born: 20 May, 1966

Known for: AKS primality test

51. Chandrashekhar Khare

Born: 1968

Known for: Proof of Serre conjecture

52. Subhash Khot

Known for: Unique games conjecture

53. Dr. Neena Gupta

Known for: Providing a counter-example over a field of positive characteristic to the special Zariski Cancellation Problem

In the above list of Indian Mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India will enhance the general knowledge of the readers.

List of universities in India

view of University of Madras from the beach

The University of Madras, established 1857, is one of the three oldest modern state universities in India, the others being the University of Calcutta and the University of Mumbai.

The higher education system in India includes both private and public universities. Public universities are supported by the Government of India and the state governments, while private universities are mostly supported by various bodies and societies. Universities in India are recognised by the University Grants Commission (UGC), which draws its power from the University Grants Commission Act, 1956. In addition, 15 Professional Councils are established, controlling different aspects of accreditation and co-ordination.

The types of universities include:

  • Central universities, or Union universities, are established by an Act of Parliament and are under the purview of the Department of Higher Education in the Union Human Resource Development Ministry. As of 12 December 2018, The list of central universities published by the UGC includes 49 central universities.
  • State universities are run by the state government of each of the states and territories of India and are usually established by a local legislative assembly act. As of 6 October 2017, the UGC lists 367 state universities. The oldest establishment date listed by the UGC is 1857, shared by the University of Mumbai, the University of Madras and the University of Calcutta. Most State Universities are affiliating universities administering many affiliated colleges (often located in small towns) that typically offer a range of undergraduate courses, but may also offer post-graduate courses. More established colleges may even offer Ph.D. programs in some departments with the approval of the affiliating university.
  • Deemed university, or “Deemed to be University”, is a status of autonomy granted by the Department of Higher Education on the advice of the UGC, under Section 3 of the UGC Act. As of 6 October 2017, the UGC lists 123 deemed universities.[12] According to this list, the first institute to be granted deemed university status was Indian Institute of Science, which was granted this status on 12 May 1958. In many cases, the same listing by the UGC covers several institutes. For example, the listing for Homi Bhabha National Institute covers the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research and other institutes.
  • Private universities are approved by the UGC. They can grant degrees but they are not allowed to have off-campus affiliated colleges. As of 6 October 2017, the UGC list of private universities lists 282 universities.

These four types of universities total 821 universities together. There are universities of some kind in each of the 29 states of India as well as three of the union territories: Chandigarh, Delhi and Puducherry. The state with the most universities is Rajasthan with 76 universities, and Rajasthan has also by far the most private universities, 46 in number. Tamil Nadu is the state with the most deemed universities, numbering 28[12] and Uttar Pradesh has the most state universities, 29. Uttar Pradesh also has six central universities, the largest number of all the states and territories.

Apart from the above universities, other institutions are granted the permission to autonomously award degrees. However, they do not affiliate colleges and are not officially called “universities” but “autonomous organizations” or “autonomous institutes”. They fall under the administrative control of the Department of Higher Education. These organisations include the Indian Institutes of Information Technology, Indian Institutes of Technology, the National Institutes of Technology, the All India Institutes of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research, the Indian Institutes of Management (though these award diplomas, not degrees) and other autonomous institutes. These institutes are not listed below.

Also not listed are institutes which are under the control of the professional councils, without an approval of the UGC, e.g. Agricultural Universities, which are under the control of the Agricultural Education Division of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), one of the professional councils.

The University Grants Commission (UGC) has also released the list of 24 fake Universities operating in India. UGC has said that these 24 self-styled, unrecognised institutions functioning in contravention of the UGC Act have been declared as fake and are not entitled to confer any degrees.

Universities by state and type

The table below is correct as of October 2017.

Andhra Pradesh 0205025
Arunachal Pradesh 10179
Assam 2120519
Bihar 4151222
Chandigarh 01102
Chhattisgarh 1130923
Delhi 5710022
Goa 01001
Gujarat 12823162
Haryana 11462041
Himachal Pradesh 1401722
Jammu and Kashmir 291012
Jharkhand 181818
Karnataka 126141455
Kerala 1133017
Madhya Pradesh 22212449
Maharashtra 122211054
Manipur 31015
Meghalaya 10089
Mizoram 10012
Nagaland 10034
Odisha 1162423
Puducherry 10102
Punjab 1921527
Rajasthan 12184676
Sikkim 10056
Tamil Nadu 22228052
Telangana 3162021
Tripura 11013
Uttar Pradesh 62992973
Uttarakhand 11131328
West Bengal1261937

This list is current as of 29 June 2017.

List of SQL Commands

SQL, Structured Query Language, is a programming language designed to manage data stored in relational databases. SQL operates through simple, declarative statements. This keeps data accurate and secure, and it helps maintain the integrity of databases, regardless of size.

Here’s an appendix of commonly used commands.



ALTER TABLE table_name 
ADD column_name datatype;

ALTER TABLE lets you add columns to a table in a database.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_1 = value_1
  AND column_2 = value_2;

AND is an operator that combines two conditions. Both conditions must be true for the row to be included in the result set.


SELECT column_name AS 'Alias'
FROM table_name;

AS is a keyword in SQL that allows you to rename a column or table using an alias.


SELECT AVG(column_name)
FROM table_name;

AVG() is an aggregate function that returns the average value for a numeric column.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name BETWEEN value_1 AND value_2;

The BETWEEN operator is used to filter the result set within a certain range. The values can be numbers, text or dates.


SELECT column_name,
    WHEN condition THEN 'Result_1'
    WHEN condition THEN 'Result_2'
    ELSE 'Result_3'
FROM table_name;

CASE statements are used to create different outputs (usually in the SELECT statement). It is SQL’s way of handling if-then logic.


SELECT COUNT(column_name)
FROM table_name;

COUNT() is a function that takes the name of a column as an argument and counts the number of rows where the column is not NULL.


CREATE TABLE table_name (
  column_1 datatype, 
  column_2 datatype, 
  column_3 datatype

CREATE TABLE creates a new table in the database. It allows you to specify the name of the table and the name of each column in the table.


DELETE FROM table_name
WHERE some_column = some_value;

DELETE statements are used to remove rows from a table.


SELECT column_name, COUNT(*)
FROM table_name
GROUP BY column_name;

GROUP BY is a clause in SQL that is only used with aggregate functions. It is used in collaboration with the SELECT statement to arrange identical data into groups.


SELECT column_name, COUNT(*)
FROM table_name
GROUP BY column_name
HAVING COUNT(*) > value;

HAVING was added to SQL because the WHERE keyword could not be used with aggregate functions.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_1
JOIN table_2
  ON table_1.column_name = table_2.column_name;

An inner join will combine rows from different tables if the join condition is true.


INSERT INTO table_name (column_1, column_2, column_3) 
VALUES (value_1, 'value_2', value_3);

INSERT statements are used to add a new row to a table.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name IS NULL;

IS NULL and IS NOT NULL are operators used with the WHERE clause to test for empty values.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name LIKE pattern;

LIKE is a special operator used with the WHERE clause to search for a specific pattern in a column.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
LIMIT number;

LIMIT is a clause that lets you specify the maximum number of rows the result set will have.


SELECT MAX(column_name)
FROM table_name;

MAX() is a function that takes the name of a column as an argument and returns the largest value in that column.


SELECT MIN(column_name)
FROM table_name;

MIN() is a function that takes the name of a column as an argument and returns the smallest value in that column.


SELECT column_name
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name = value_1
   OR column_name = value_2;

OR is an operator that filters the result set to only include rows where either condition is true.


SELECT column_name
FROM table_name
ORDER BY column_name ASC | DESC;

ORDER BY is a clause that indicates you want to sort the result set by a particular column either alphabetically or numerically.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_1
LEFT JOIN table_2
  ON table_1.column_name = table_2.column_name;

An outer join will combine rows from different tables even if the join condition is not met. Every row in the left table is returned in the result set, and if the join condition is not met, then NULL values are used to fill in the columns from the right table.


SELECT ROUND(column_name, integer)
FROM table_name;

ROUND() is a function that takes a column name and an integer as arguments. It rounds the values in the column to the number of decimal places specified by the integer.


SELECT column_name 
FROM table_name;

SELECT statements are used to fetch data from a database. Every query will begin with SELECT.


FROM table_name;

SELECT DISTINCT specifies that the statement is going to be a query that returns unique values in the specified column(s).


SELECT SUM(column_name)
FROM table_name;

SUM() is a function that takes the name of a column as an argument and returns the sum of all the values in that column.


UPDATE table_name
SET some_column = some_value
WHERE some_column = some_value;

UPDATE statements allow you to edit rows in a table.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value;

WHERE is a clause that indicates you want to filter the result set to include only rows where the following condition is true.


WITH temporary_name AS (
   FROM table_name)
FROM temporary_name
WHERE column_name operator value;

WITH clause lets you store the result of a query in a temporary table using an alias. You can also define multiple temporary tables using a comma and with one instance of the WITH keyword.

The WITH clause is also known as common table expression (CTE) and subquery factoring.