Nobel Prize Winners : 1991 – 2000

1991

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
“for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991

Richard R. Ernst
“for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann
“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991

Nadine Gordimer
“who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1991

Aung San Suu Kyi
“for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1991

Ronald H. Coase
“for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy”

1992

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992

Georges Charpak
“for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992

Rudolph A. Marcus
“for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs
“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992

Derek Walcott
“for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1992

Rigoberta Menchú Tum
“in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1992

Gary S. Becker
“for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour”

1993

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

“for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry”
Kary B. Mullis
“for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”

Michael Smith
“for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993

Richard J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp
“for their discoveries of split genes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1993

Toni Morrison
“who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993

Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk
“for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1993

Robert W. Fogel and Douglass C. North
“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”

1994

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

“for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter”
Bertram N. Brockhouse
“for the development of neutron spectroscopy”

Clifford G. Shull
“for the development of the neutron diffraction technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994

George A. Olah
“for his contribution to carbocation chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell
“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994

Kenzaburo Oe
“who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994

Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin
“for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994

John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr. and Reinhard Selten
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

1995

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

“for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics”
Martin L. Perl
“for the discovery of the tau lepton”

Frederick Reines
“for the detection of the neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1995

Seamus Heaney
“for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1995

Joseph Rotblat and Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
“for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1995

Robert E. Lucas Jr.
“for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy”

1996

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996

Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold W. Kroto and Richard E. Smalley
“for their discovery of fullerenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel
“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1996

Wislawa Szymborska
“for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta
“for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996

James A. Mirrlees and William Vickrey
“for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information”

1997

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker
“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”
Jens C. Skou
“for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

Stanley B. Prusiner
“for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1997

Dario Fo
“who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1997

International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams
“for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1997

Robert C. Merton and Myron S. Scholes
“for a new method to determine the value of derivatives”

1998

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

Walter Kohn
“for his development of the density-functional theory”

John A. Pople
“for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1998

José Saramago
“who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998

John Hume and David Trimble
“for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998

Amartya Sen
“for his contributions to welfare economics”

1999

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

Gerardus ‘t Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
“for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999

Ahmed H. Zewail
“for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

Günter Blobel
“for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1999

Günter Grass
“whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1999

Médecins Sans Frontières
“in recognition of the organization’s pioneering humanitarian work on several continents”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999

Robert A. Mundell
“for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas”

2000

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

“for basic work on information and communication technology”
Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer
“for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”
Jack S. Kilby
“for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000

Gao Xingjian
“for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2000

Kim Dae-jung
“for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000

James J. Heckman
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples”

Daniel L. McFadden
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice”

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