Nobel Prize Winners : 1981 – 1990

1981

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”
Kai M. Siegbahn

“for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981

Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann
“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Roger W. Sperry
“for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”
David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel
“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981

Elias Canetti
“for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1981

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1981

James Tobin
“for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices”

1982

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982

Kenneth G. Wilson
“for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982

Aaron Klug
“for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane
“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982

Gabriel García Márquez
“for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent’s life and conflicts”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1982

Alva Myrdal

Alfonso García Robles

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982

George J. Stigler
“for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation”

1983

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
“for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars”

William Alfred Fowler
“for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983

Henry Taube
“for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983

Barbara McClintock
“for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1983

William Golding
“for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1983

Lech Walesa

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1983

Gerard Debreu
“for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium”

1984

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer
“for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984

Robert Bruce Merrifield
“for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein
“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1984

Jaroslav Seifert
“for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1984

Desmond Mpilo Tutu

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1984

Richard Stone
“for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis”

1985

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985

Klaus von Klitzing
“for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985

Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle
“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein
“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1985

Claude Simon
“who in his novel combines the poet’s and the painter’s creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1985

International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1985

Franco Modigliani
“for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets”

1986

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Ernst Ruska
“for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope”
Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
“for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini
“for their discoveries of growth factors”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1986

Wole Soyinka
“who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1986

Elie Wiesel

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1986

James M. Buchanan Jr.
“for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making”

1987

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller
“for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987

Susumu Tonegawa
“for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1987

Joseph Brodsky
“for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1987

Oscar Arias Sánchez
“for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1987

Robert M. Solow
“for his contributions to the theory of economic growth”

1988

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel
“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1988

Naguib Mahfouz
“who, through works rich in nuance – now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous – has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1988

United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1988

Maurice Allais
“for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources”

1989

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Norman F. Ramsey
“for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks”
Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul
“for the development of the ion trap technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech
“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus
“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1989

Camilo José Cela
“for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man’s vulnerability”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1989

The 14th Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso)

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1989

Trygve Haavelmo
“for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures”

1990

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990

Elias James Corey
“for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas
“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1990

Octavio Paz
“for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1990

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
“for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1990

Harry M. Markowitz, Merton H. Miller and William F. Sharpe
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

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