At the time of reorganization of Indian states, India had 14 states and 6 union territories but as of now India has 29 states and 8 union territories.
India has 29 states and 8 union territories. These all states are different with each other in terms of languages, climate, religion, customs, dressing and cousines etc.
But still India is called the union of states. Just because of the diversity at each step and intact togetherness made India an excellent example of unity in diversity.
In the light of the vision of Pandit Nehru, India is divided in five Zonal Councils as per Part-III of the States Re-organisation Act, 1956. Present composition of each of these Zonal Councils is as under:
1.The Northern Zonal Council
2. The Central Zonal Council
3. The Eastern Zonal Council
4. The Western Zonal Council
5. The Southern Zonal Council
1. The Northern Zonal Council: The North zone council comprises some states like Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Chandigarh.
(a) Haryana is the 20th state of India that came into being on 1st November 1966. It is called the land of Battlefield of India. Presently it has 21 districts. Previously it was under Punjab. It is situated in the North Western region surrounded by Himachal Pradesh from North, Uttrakhand from North East, Rajasthan from the South, U.P and Delhi from East and Punjab from North West. Haryana has the lowest sex ration n the whole country at 877.
(b) Himachal Pradesh is (known as “Devabhoomi”, the abode of the Gods) a state in Northern India. Its area is 21,495 sq mt. it was founded in January 25, 1971, with capital at Shimla covers the Area of 55,673 km⊃2; with population of 68.65 Lakh.
(c) Jammu & Kashmir has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India. It is the first state of India which has its own flag and constitution. It became part of Indian Territory when its ruler maharaja Hari Singh accepted the sovereignty of India on 26 Oct, 1947.
(d) Punjab is located in the north west of India, is one of the most prosperous states of India.The word Punjab is derived from the Persian words Panj (“five”) and Āb (“waters”), thus Panjāb means “Five Rivers”, which roughly means “Land of Five Rivers” such as Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum.
(e) Rajasthan is India’s largest state by area (342,239 km2 (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4% of India’s total area). It is located on the western side of the country, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the “Rajasthan Desert” and “Great Indian Desert”).
(f) National Capital Territory of Delhi is the capital city of India. It is historically and culturally connected to both the Upper Doab of the Yamuna-Ganges river system and the Punjab region. It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. It has a population of about 16.75 million, making it the second most populous city and second most populous urban agglomeration in India and 3rd largest urban area in the world.
(g) Union Territory of Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in the northern part of India that serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana. As a union territory, the city is ruled directly by the Union Government and is not part of either state. It is a union territory since 1966.
2. The Central Zonal Council: Central Zonal Council comprises states like: Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
(a) Chhattisgarh was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh. Chhattisgarh is a state in central India. It is the 10th largest state in India, with an area of 135,194 km2 (52,199 sq mi) and with a population of 25.5 million.
(b) Uttarakhand was formed on 9th November 2000 as the 27th State of India, when it was carved out of northern Uttar Pradesh. It is located at the foothills of the Himalayan mountain ranges. The four most sacred and revered Hindu temples of Badrinath,Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri are nestled in this state. It’s truly God’s Land (Dev Bhoomi).
(c) Uttar Pradesh is biggest state of India (in terms of population). Its area of 2,36,286 km2lies between latitude 24 deg to 31 deg and longitude 77 deg to 84 deg East. It is the largest producer of sugarcane, sugar, wheat and potato in the whole country.
(d) Madhya Pradesh is situated in the central region of India and that’s why it is called the Heartland State. It has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India as Madhya Pradesh is rich in mineral resources. It came into existence in 1956. It is the largest producer of Soyabean in the country.
3. The Eastern Zonal Council: The Eastern Zonal Council comprises states like: Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal and Sikkim.
(a) Bihar is located in the eastern part of the country (between 83°-30′ to 88°-00′ longitude). It is an entirely land–locked state, although the outlet to the sea through the port of Kolkata is not far away. It was established in 26 Jan., 1950. As per census 2011, it is most dense state of India.
(b) Jharkhand is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi). The city of Ranchi is its capital while the industrial city of Jamshedpur is the largest in the state. It is the top producer of iron ore, copper ore, kainite, mica and uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar).
(c) Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. Odia (formerly known as Oriya) is the official and most widely-spoken language. It is the biggest producer of manganese in India.
(d)West Bengal is a state in eastern India and is the nation’s fourth-most populous state, with over 91 million inhabitants. Spread over 34,267 sq mi (88,750 km2), it is bordered by the countries of Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, and the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata. This state is most famous for Royal Bengal Tiger in Sundarvan.
4. The Western Zonal Council: The Western Zonal Council comprises of states like: Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra and the Union Territories of Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli
(a) Goa is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the North and by Karnataka to the East and South, while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast. It is India’s smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Goa is India’s richest state. It was established on 30 may, 1987.
(b) Gujarat is a state in the western part of India, known locally as Jewel of the Western part of India. It has an area of 196,204 km2 (75,755 sq mi) with a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi), most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. It is best known for the Asiatic lion. It has the biggest coast line in India.
(c) Maharashtra is a state spanning west-central India, is best known for its fast-paced capital, Mumbai (formerly Bombay). This sprawling metropolis is the seat of the Bollywood film industry. It’s also famed for sites like the British Raj-era Gateway of India monument and the cave temples at nearby Elephanta Island. It was established in 1st May 1960.
(d) Union Territories of Daman & Diu, for over 450 years, the coastal enclaves of Daman and Diu on the Arabian Sea coast were part of Portuguese India, along with Goa and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Goa, Daman and Diu were incorporated into the Republic of India on December 19, 1961, by military conquest.
(e) Dadra & Nagar Haveli is a Union Territory in Western India. Nagar Haveli is wedged between Maharashtra and Gujarat, whereas Dadra is an enclave 1 km NW, surrounded by Gujarat. The shared capital is Silvassa. The larger part spans a roughly c-shaped area up-river from the city of Daman on the coast, at the centre of which, and thus outside the territory, is the Madhuban reservoir. It came into existence on 11 Aug. 1961.
5. The Southern Zonal Council: The Southern Zonal Council comprises states like: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the (e)Union Territory of Puducherry (f) Telangana
(a) Andhra Pradesh is situated on the southeastern coast of the country. The state is covering an area of 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi). On 2 June 2014, the North-Western portion of the state was bifurcated to form a new state of Telangana. Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for not exceeding 10 years. It is called the Rice bowl of India.
(b) Karnataka is a state in south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The capital and largest city is Bangalore/ Bangaluru is known as the silicon valley of India. It is also known as the land of sun rising Industry.
(c) Kerala is historically known as Keralam, is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi). It is the largest Rubber producer state of India most educated state of India and a state of highest sex ration in the country.
(d) Tamil Nadu is literally The Land of Tamils or Tamil Country. Tamil Nadu,lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu is the second largest state economy in India with (US$ 167.172 billion) in Gross Domestic Product.
(e) Union Territory of Puducherry formerly known as Pondicherry literally New Town in Tamil is a Union Territory of India. It was formed out of four exclaves of former French India namely Puducherry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahe. It is named after the largest district Puducherry. The territory changed its official name to Puducherry on 20 September 2006. it was formed on 1st November 1966.
(f) Telangana is a state in South India and one of the 29 states in India. It was formed on 2 June 2014 with the city of Hyderabad as its capital. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and North west, Chhattisgarh to the North. Telangana has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,193,978 (2011 census. Currently its capital is Hyderabad.