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CV Raman Facts

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

One of India’s most revered scientists and the Nobel prize-winning Physicist, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, more popularly known as C V Raman, was born on November 7, 1888, and passed away in 1970. His father was a lecturer of Mathematics and Physics, which had influenced Raman to follow the course of Science.

Interesting facts about Sir C V Raman:

  • Raman quit his government service; he was appointed the first Palit Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta in 1917
  • While he was teaching at the University of Calcutta, Raman continued his research at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) in Calcutta. He later became an honorary scholar at the association
  • At the IACS, Raman did a ground-breaking experiment that eventually earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics on February 28 in 1928. He discovered the evidence of the quantum nature of light by observing the scattering of light, an effect that came to be known as the Raman Effect. The day is celebrated as National Science Day in India
  • Not known by many, Raman had a collaborator in this experiment. K S Krishnan, Raman’s co-worker, did not share the Nobel Prize due to some professional differences between the two. However, Raman strongly mentioned Krishnan’s contributions in his Nobel acceptance speech
  • Discoverer of atomic nucleus and proton, Dr Ernest Rutherford referred to Raman’s spectroscopy in his presidential address to the Royal Society in 1929. Raman was acknowledged by the society and he was also presented with a knighthood
  • Raman had been hoping for a Nobel Prize since 1928. After two years of wait, he bagged the award “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman Effect”. He was so eager that he had booked tickets to Sweden in July to receive the award in November
  • Raman was the first Asian and non-white individual to win a Nobel Prize in science
  • In 1932, Raman and Suri Bhagavantam discovered the quantum photon spin. This discovery further proved the quantum nature of light
  • When asked about his inspiration behind the Nobel Prize-winning optical theory, Raman said he was inspired by the “wonderful blue opalescence of the Mediterranean Sea” while he was going to Europe in 1921
  • Raman was not only an expert on light, he also experimented with acoustics. Raman was the first person to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of Indian drums such as tabla and mridangam
  • On his first death anniversary, the Indian Postal Service published a commemorative stamp of Sir C V Raman with the reading of his spectroscopy and a diamond in the background. He was also awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1954.

Sundar Pichai’s Biography

Sundar Pichai is the current Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the search engine Google. He is an India born world-class figure. The total salary of Sundar Pichai was around US$1,881,066 in 2018. Let us read this article to know more information about the Sundar Pichai.

Sundar Pichai: CEO Google
Sundar Pichai: CEO Google

Full Name: Pichai Sundararajan

Date of Birth: June 10, 1972 (age 47)

Place of Birth: Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

Father: Regunatha Pichai

Mother: Lakshmi Pichai

Wife:   Anjali Pichai (Class mate at IIT Kharagpur)

Children: 2 (Kiran Pichai, Kavya Pichai)

Nationality: American, India born American

Height: 1.80 Mtr.

Sundar Pichai Education: 

Schooling of Sundar Pichai: He completed schooling in Jawahar Vidyalaya, a school in Ashok Nagar, Chennai and completed the Class XII from Vana Vani school. 

B.Tech: IIT Kharagpur 

Master of Science (MS): Stanford University

MBA:  Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Sundar Pichai Hobbies: Football and Cricket

Sundar Pichai Net Worth: $920 Million dollars as of 25 June 2019

Sundar Pichai Salary: The salary of Sundar Pichai is US$6.5 lac per year which continues to be since 2015. But due to the addition of personal security budget and other fringe benefits it is increased to US$1,881,066 in 2018.

Family background of Sundar Pichai

Sundar Pichai belongs to the family of an Engineer. The father of Pichai was an electrical engineer at General Electric Company (GEC), the British conglomerate. His father Regunatha Pichai had a manufacturing plant that produced electrical components. The Mother of Sundar Pichai was also a working woman. She was a stenographer.

Career of Sundar Pichai;

Sundar Pichai had completed B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering from IIT Kharagpur and earned a scholarship to study materials science and semiconductor physics from Stanford University, USA.

He started his career as an engineer and product manager at a semiconductor maker (Applied materials) in Silicon Valley, USA.

Sundar completed MBA from Wharton in 2002 and joined McKinsey & Company as a consultant. Finally, he joined Google in 2004.

Major Success of Sundar Pichai

Sundar Pichai convinced the co-founders of Google, Sergey Brin, and Larry Page to launch Google’s browser. Sundar played an important role in the final launching of Google Chrome, in 2008. Eventually, Chrome became the No. 1 browser in the world, surpassing competitors such as Firefox and Internet Explorer.

God help those who help themselves, and the launch of Google Chrome brings phenomenal success to the Sundar Pichai.

Sundar Pichai became an internationally famous figure following the thrilling success of the Google Chrome.

Finally after the gap of 11 years, since he joined Google; he was selected as the next CEO of Google on August 10, 2015. 

The Alphabet Inc. was formed in 2015 as a Google’s parent company. Sundar Pichai was awarded 273,328 shares of Google’s holding company Alphabet in Feb.2016. Finally, on December 3, 2019, he became the CEO of Alphabet Inc.

So, in conclusion, it can be said that Sundar Pichai is a great inventor and a complete corporate guy. As an Indian, we are proud on Sundar Pichai.

Sri Aurobindo’s Biography

Sri Aurobindo was one of the first Indians educated in England. He was a poet, thinker, freedom fighter, yogi and spiritual leader. He was born on 15 August 1872 in Kolkata, West Bengal. Let us read about Sri Aurobindo’s early life, family, achievements, education, and works, etc.    

Sri Aurobindo Biography

Sri Aurobindo is also known as Aurobindo Ghose and also spelled as Aravinda. He propounded a philosophy of divine life on earth and founded an ashram in Puducherry. His epic poem Savitri is one of the greatest works of him. His participation in the Indian freedom struggle against the British gave him popularity and gradually evolved to become a spiritual and yogic guru. He came up with a new path of spirituality known as ‘integral yoga’. The main objective of his teachings was to increase the level of consciousness of people and to aware people of their true selves. He had written several books focused on Indian culture, socio-political development of the country, spirituality, etc.

Sri Aurobindo: Facts at a Glance

Birth Date: 15 August 1872

Place of Birth: Kolkata, West Bengal, India (Present-day)

Died: 5 December 1950

Place of Death: Puducherry, India

Father’s Name: Dr. K.D Ghose

Mother’s Name: Swarnalata Devi

Spouse: Mrinalini Devi

Alma mater: University of Cambridge

Established: Sri Aurobindo Ashram

Philosophy: Integral Yoga, Involution, Evolution, Integral psychology, Intermediate Zone, Supermind

Literary Works: The Life Divine, The Synthesis of Yoga, Savitri

Sri Aurobindo: Early Life, Family and Education

When he was born his name was kept Aurobindo Akroyd Ghose. His parents want to give his upbringing in European style. So, they enrolled him in the Loreto Convent School at Darjeeling. At the age of 7, he was sent to England to complete his studies. He did his schooling from King’s College, Cambridge. And also, he had learned various foreign languages like Greek, French, Italian German, Latin, and Spanish. In 1892, he came back to India.

He passed the Indian Civil Service examination. But he doesn’t want to work for the British Government so, he did not join. But in 1893, he accepted an appointment in the Baroda state service. He worked for 13 years and rose to the post of principal of the Baroda State College. He learned Sanskrit; read the Vedas, the Upanishads, epics, Marathi, Gujarati, and his native language Bengali. In 1901, he married Mrinalini Basu.

During the partition of Bengal (1905-1912), he led the group of nationalists. Later, he became the editor of a nationalist Bengal newspaper named Vande Mataram. He was also imprisoned in 1908 and two years later, he fled British India and found a refuge in the French Colony of Pondicherry (Puducherry). Here. He devoted himself for the rest of his life to the development of “integral yoga”. His aim was to spiritually transform the life on earth.

Sri Aurobindo: Works

In Pondicherry (Puducherry), Sri Aurobindo patrons were French couple namely Paul Richard and his wife Mirra Alfassa Richard (later she was the Mother of the Pondicherry (Puducherry) Ashram). He started publishing the monthly journal Anya with the assistance of his French friends. In the journal, he focussed on the divine destiny of humankind, unification of the human race, the spirit and the significance of Indian civilisation and culture. Later, he mentioned these articles in the Life Divine. He also wrote his epic poem Savitri in 23,813 lines of blank verse. Do you it is one of the longest poems in the English language.

His works at a glance

– The Divine Life his major works includes Essays on the Gita (1922).

– Collected Poems and Plays (1942)

– The Synthesis of Yoga (1948)

– The Human Cycle (1949)

– The ideal of Human Unity (1949)

– Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol (1950)

– On the Veda (1956)

In 1926, he retired to complete seclusion. He met the poet Rabindranath Tagore in 1928. His yoga system empowers the people in transforming life, mind, and body.

Sri Aurobindo had five-part vision namely:

  1. He wished to see free and independent India that he witnessed on 15 August, 1947 on his birthday.
  2. Resurgence of Asia
  3. World Union
  4. The spiritual gift to India to the world
  5. A step in evolution which would raise man to a higher and larger consciousness.

Sri Aurobindo: Ashram

In 1926, he established ashram that has witnessed tremendous growth over the years. That time, there were 124 disciples and today more than 1200 members are there.

Sri Aurobindo: Death

On 5 December 1950, he left the world. His work was continued by the Mother and after her death by her successors at the Pondicherry (Puducherry) Ashram. Do you know the international community; Auroville established on the outskirts of Pondicherry (Puducherry) celebrates Aurobindo’s revolutionary utopian vision. Several authors were inspired by the works of Aurobindo Ghose and one such scholar, the late Haridas Chaudhuri, established the Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco in 1971.

Sanna Marin’s Biography

Sanna Marin has been selected as the next Prime Minister of Finland. She will be the youngest Prime Minister of the world at the age of just 34.

Sanna Marin: The youngest PM of the World
Sanna Marin: The youngest PM of the World

Personal details about Sanna Marin

Full Name: Sanna Mirella Marin

Date of Birth: 16 November 1985 (age 34)

Place of Birth: Helsinki, Finland

Political party: Social Democratic Party

Spouse(s): Markus Räikkönen

Children: 1

Education: Graduated, Bachelor of Administrative Sciences in 2012. (University of Tampere) 

Personal life of Sanna Marin

Sanna Marin is the child of same-sex parents. She is married to her long-time boyfriend Markus Räikkönen. Sanna is a mother of one child also.

sanna-with husband
(Sanna with her husband)

The Political career of Sanna Marin

Sanna Marin has completed her graduation in Bachelor of Administrative Sciences from the University of Tampere in 2012.

served as the chairperson of the City Council from 2013 to 2017. The career of Sanna got a boost in 2014 when she was elected second deputy chairperson of the Social Democratic Party.

Sanna Marin was elected to the Parliament of Finland in 2015 and repeated the same in June 2019 and became the Minister of Transport and Communications.

The current Prime Minister Antti Rinne has resigned from the post because he could not prove his majority in the parliament.

Rinne’s resignation prompted the Social Democratic party to make the next government with the help of other parties I.e. Center Party, the Greens, the Left Alliance and the Swedish People’s Party.

Finland’s Social Democrats has elected 34-year-old Sanna Marin to lead the coalition government. So she is all set to become the youngest Prime Minister of Finland. She would also be the country’s third female Prime Minister ever.

Marin would surpass the record of Ukraine’s Prime Minister Oleksiy Honcharuk, who is currently 35.

Worth to mention that the other youngest Prime Minister/Head of the world includes; Oleksiy Honcharuk (35) of Ukraine, Kim Jong-un (35) of North Korea and Jacinda Ardern (39) of New Zealand.

So this the important information about the world’s youngest Prime Minister Sanna Marin. To read such more articles click on the link given below.

Viswanathan Anand’s Biography

When we think about chess, the name strike in our mind is Viswanathan Anand. Isn’t it! He is an inspiration to all of us. He is one of the greatest chess players. Let us read Viswanathan Anand’s biography that consists of his early life, education, family, the journey of chess, awards, and achievements.  

Viswanathan Anand Biography

In World Chess Championship, Viswanathan Anand is a five-time winner. He is a versatile player and chess Grandmaster who dominated the world of chess for six years from 2007 to 2013. He is the only chess player who had won the world championship playing in Match, Tournament and Knockout formats.

He was born on 11 December, 1969 in Tamil Nadu, India. He has also earned a nickname “Lightning Kid”. He inspired generations to pursue chess game as the career. No doubt before Viswanathan Anand, nobody till now received commercial attention as an Indian Chess player.

Viswanathan Anand: Facts at a Glance

Born on: 11 December, 1969

Place of Birth: Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu

Father’s Name: Krishnamurthy Viswanathan

Mother’s Name: Susheela

Spouse Name: Aruna Anand

Children: Akhil Anand

Sport: Chess

World Champion: 2000-2002 (FIDE) and from 2007-2013

Ranking: 6 (February 2019)

Viswanathan Anand: Early Life, Family, and Education

Father of Viswanathan Anand was a general manager in the Southern Railways and his mother is a housewife. As we know that he was born in Tamil Nadu into a Brahmin family and is the youngest of three siblings. He had completed his schooling from Don Bosco Matriculation Higher Secondary School before joining Loyola College, Chennai. For the first time, he was introduced to chess by his mother who was a big chess aficionado. He started playing chess at the age of 6.

His mother’s motivation and encouragement made him one of the best chess players. At the age of 14, he became the National Sub-Junior Chess Champion. And at the age of 16, he became the national chess champion. In 1897, he won the World Junior Chess Championship and became the first Indian to do so and at just 18 years of age, he became India’s first Grandmaster. He had received a Bachelor degree in Commerce and till then he became a National Champion. In 1996, he was married to Aruna and has one son. He always keeps himself away from the controversies and is a very simple person

Viswanathan Anand: Career and Journey of Chess Tournaments

Viswanathan Anand Chess Journey

In 1991, he won the Reggio Emilia tournament, finishing ahead of world champion Garry Kasparov and former world champion Anatoly Karpov. Do you know that for the first time, a non-Russian had emerged to become world chess champion?

– In 1991, his first attempt to win FIDE’s World Chess Championship ended when he lost quarter-finals to Karpov.

– In 1995, Viswanathan Anand in the PCA World Chess Championship played against Garry Kasparov and lost the match.

– He cleared the candidates round by defeating Michael Adams in 1998 and faced the reigning champion Karpov in the World Chess Championship finals.

– In 2000, he won his first title in World Chess Championship and beat Alexei Shirov.

– In 2002, he lost in the semi-finals to Russia’s Vassily Ivanchuk.

– In 2003, Viswanathan Anand won the World Rapid Chess Championship.

– In 2006, he became the fourth player in history to cross 2800-mark in ELO ratings.

– In 2007, he won the double round-robin tournament against most of the best players in the world.

– He won the World Championship in 2008 against Kramnik.

– In 2010, he won World Chess Championship against Veselin Topalov.

– In the 2012 World Chess Championship, he won against Boris Gelfand who was the winner of 2011 Candidates Matches.

– In 2013, World Chess Championship, Anand lost the game and winner was a 22 year old Magnus Carlsen who was the winner of the 2013 Candidates Tournament.

Let us tell you that he first earned the nickname of the “Lightning Kid” in India due to his quick tactical calculations and won numerous “speed chess” titles. In 1998, he had published a collection of his games, Vishy Anand: My Best Games of Chess and expanded it with new games in 2001.

Viswanathan Anand: Awards and Achievements

Viswanathan Anand Awards and Achievements

He received several awards namely,

  • Arjuna Award in 1985,
  • The Padma Shri in 1987,
  • National Citizens Award and Soviet Land Nehru Award, 1987
  • The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award (1991-1992)
  • Sportstar Best Sportsperson of the Year, 1995
  • Book of the Year, 1998 (For his book My Best Games of Chess)
  • Sportstar Millennium Award, 1998
  • He received Chess Oscar in several years namely 1997, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2007, and 2008
  • The Padma Bhushan in 2000.

We can’t forget that he is considered one of the best chess players in the world. He is a five-time winner of the World Chess Championship and World Number 1 from 2007 to 2013.

Viswanathan Anand proved that the brain is our strongest weapon and biggest strength. He had made unbelievable sport as a career and inspired generations. He is one of the greatest sports people in India.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel’s Biography

Shri Vallabhbhai Patel’s full name was Vallabh Bhai, Jhaverbhai Patel. Vallabhbhai Patel is also known as the Sardar Patel and Iron Man. Vallabhbhai Patel was born on 31 October 1875, Nadiad, Gujarat and died on 15 December 1950, Bombay [now Mumbai]. Sardar Patel is most remembered for integrated India.

Sardar Patel in Office

Facts aboout Sardar Patel

Full Name: Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel

Date and Place of Birth: 31 October 1875, Nadiad, Gujarat

Death: December 15, 1950, Bombay [now Mumbai] (Age 75)

Father: Jhaverbhai Patel

Mother: Ladba Devi

Nickname: Sardar Patel, Iron Man, The Pioneer of All India Services

Education: Advocate (England)

Post: Home Minister (15 August 1947 – 15 December 1950)

Children: Maniben Patel, Dahyabhai Patel

Biography of Vallabhbhai Patel

Mr. Vallabhbhai Patel was the Indian barrister, politician and one of the leading figure of the country during the Indian freedom movement. During the first three years of Indian independence after 1947, he served as Deputy Prime Minister, Home Minister, Information Minister and Minister of State.

In 2014, the Government of India had decided to celebrate the birthday of Sardar Patel as the “National Unity Day” to honor Sardar Patel’s contribution to integrated India. Since 2014, we are celebrating the 31st October (date of birth of Sardar Patel) as the “National Unity Day”

Apart from this, the world’s tallest statue, the Statue of Unity, was dedicated to him on 31 October 2018, which is about 182 meters (597 ft) high.

statue-of-unity

Education of Sardar Patel

He studied in primary school in Karamasad and high school in Petlad. Sardar Patel took a long time to complete his school education. He passed the 10th examination at the age of 22 years.

In August 1910, he moved to London for further studies. He completed the 36-month course of advocacy in just 30 months. He returned to India in 1913 and settled in Ahmedabad and became a barrister in criminal law at Ahmedabad bar.

From 1917 to 1924, Patel served as the first Indian municipal commissioner of Ahmedabad and he was the president of Municipality from 1924 to 1928.

Sardar Patel made his first mark in 1918, when he launched a movement with the help of farmers and zamindars of Kairana (Gujarat) against the decision of the Bombay Government to recover the tax even after the bad crop season.

In the year 1928 Patel successfully led the agitation of Zamindars of Bardoli against the increased taxes. After the successful leadership in the Bardoli; he was awarded the title of “Sardar”, which means “Leader”.

Contribution to India’s independence movement

During the 1930 Salt Satyagraha; Patel was sentenced to three months imprisonment. In March 1931, Patel headed the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress. 

Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel had participated in Gandhi’s individual disobedience, and arrested in 1940 and imprisoned for nine months. Patel lost more than 20 pounds weight during his period in jail.

During Quit India Movement (1942), sardar Patel was arrested and imprisoned from 1942 to 1945 at the fort in Ahmednagar.

He led the Congress Party in the 1937 elections and was a major contender for the post of Congress President for 1937 but due to Gandhi’s pressure, Patel withdrawn nomination and Jawaharlal Nehru was elected congress President.

Patel was once again the leading candidate for the post of President of the Indian National Congress but Gandhi once again intervened and Jawaharlal Nehru was elected as the President of the Congress.

After this, Nehru was invited by the British Government to form the Interim Government. If Sardar Patel would have been elected as the President of the Congress, perhaps Sardar Patel could have been the first Prime Minister of the country.

During the first three years of independence, Sardar Patel was the Deputy Prime Minister, Home Minister, Information Minister and Minister of State. Sardar Patel may not have been the first Prime Minister of India but he will always be the father of a united India.

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s Biography

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, a name which does not require any kind of introduction. Popularly, he was known as the Missile Man of India. His full name is Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam. He was an Indian scientist and a politician. He played a crucial role in the development of India’s missile and nuclear weapons programs. Let us read more about Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s biography, family, history, books, etc.      

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam – The Missile Man of India

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam – The Missile Man of India

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October, 1931. His birth anniversary is observed as World Students’ Day. He was the President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was honoured with several prestigious awards including India’s highest civilian honour “Bharat Ratna” in 1997. He was born in Dhanushkodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering.

Name: Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam)

Nick Name: Missile Man

Nationality: Indian

Occupation: Engineer, Scientist, Author, Professor, Politician

Born: 15-Oct -1931

Place of Birth: Dhanushkodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India

Died: 27 July 2015

Died at the age of: 83

Place of Death: Shillong, Meghalaya, India

Famous as: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam President from 2002 to 2007

Preceded by: Kocheril Raman Narayanan (President from 1997-2002)

Succeeded by: Pratibha Patil (President from 2007-2012)    

He was the 11th president of India and elected against Lakshmi Sehgal in 2002. Before becoming the President of India, he worked with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as an aerospace engineer.

He was known as the Missile Man of India for his important role in the nation’s civilian space programme and military missile development. Also, in 1998, he made significant contributions to India’s Pokhran-II nuclear tests.

Do you know that A.P.J Abdul Kalam began his career as a scientist at the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO)? He had also served as the project director of India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) at ISRO.

“FAILURE will never overtake me if my definition to SUCCEED is strong enough”.

In 1990s he had served as the Chief Scientific adviser to the Prime Minister before becoming the President of India in 2002. Now, let us study about Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam in detail through this article.

A.P.J Abdul Kalam: Family History and Early Life

APJ Abdul Kalam Family history and early life

Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October, 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in Rameswaram, then in Madras Presidency in British India and now in Tamil Nadu. His father name was Jainulabdeen, who was a boat owner and imam of a local mosque. His mother name was Ashiamma, who was a housewife.

Abdul Kalam was the youngest of five siblings, the eldest was a sister, namely Asim Zohra and three elder brothers, namely Mohammed Muthu Meera Lebbai Maraikayar, Mustafa Kalam and Kasim Mohammed. He was close to his family and always helps them, though he remained a bachelor whole life.

His ancestors had been wealthy traders and landowners, with numerous properties and large tracts of land. They trade groceries between the mainland and the island to and from Srilanka and also ferrying the pilgrims from mainland to the Pamban Island. So,their family got the title “Mara Kalam Iyakkivar” (wooden boat steerers) and later known as “Marakier.”

But by 1920s, his family had lost most of his fortune; their businesses failed and by the time Abdul Kalam was born are in the stage of the poverty-stricken. To help the family, Kalam started selling newspapers at an early age.

In his school days, Kalam had average grades but was described as a bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn. Mathematics was his main interest.

Knowledge without action is useless and irrelevant. Knowledge with action converts adversity into prosperity.

Education gives you wings to fly. Achievement comes out of fire in our subconscious mind that ‘I will win’.

He had completed his matriculation from Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram and later he went to Saint Joseph’s college where he became a physics graduate. In 1955, he went to Madras to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology.

During his third year of graduation, he was assigned a project to design a low-level attack aircraft together with a few other students. Their teacher had given them a tight deadline for completing the project, it was very difficult. Kalam worked hard under immense pressure and finally completed his project within the stipulated deadline. The teacher was impressed by the dedication of Kalam.

As a result Kalam want to become a fighter pilot but he got 9th position in the qualifiers list and only eight positions were available in the IAF.

A.P.J Abdul Kalam: Education and Career

APJ Abdul Kalam Education and Carreer

A.P.J Abdul Kalam had completed his graduation in 1957 from the Madras Institute of Technology and in 1958 as a scientist he had joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).

In the early 1960s, he worked with the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) under the renowned space scientist Vikram Sarabhai.

He had started his career by designing a small hovercraft at DRDO.

After visiting NASA’s Langely Research Centre in Hampton, Virginia; Goddard Space Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland and Wallops Flight Facility in 1963-64, he had started working on an expandable rocket project independently in 1965 at DRDO.

He was not much satisfied with his work at DRDO and when he received transfer orders to the ISRO in 1969 he became happy. There he served as the project director of the SLV-III which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980. It is India’s first indigenously designed and produced satellite launch vehicle.

Kalam received the government’s approval in 1969 and expanded the programme to include more engineers. In 1970s, he had made an effort to develop the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) with an aim to allow India to launch its Indian remote Sensing (IRS) satellite into Sun-Synchronous orbit, PSLV project was successful and on 20 September 1993, it was first launched.

APJ Abdul Kalam the Missile Man

Dream is not that which you see while sleeping it is something that does not let you sleep.

Raja Ramanna invited Abdul Kalam to witness the country’s first nuclear test Smiling Buddha as the representative of TBRL, even though he had not participated in its development.

In 1970s, Abdul Kalam directed two projects namely Project Devil and project Valiant. Do you know about the Project Devil? It was an early liquid-fuelled missile project aimed at producing a short-range surface-to-air missile. This project was not successful and discontinued in 1980s and later it led to the development of the Prithvi missile. On the other hand Project Valiant aimed at the development of intercontinental ballistic missile. This was also not successful.

An Indian Ministry of Defence programme managed by DRDO in partnership with other government organisations launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development programme (IGMDP) in the early 1980s. Abdul Kalam was asked to lead the project and in 1983 he returned to DRDO as Chief Executive of IGMDP in 1983.

The programme led to the development of four projects namely Short range surface-to-surface missile (Prithvi), Short range low-level surface-to-air missile (Trishul), Medium range surface-to-air missile (Akash) and Third-generation anti-tank missile (Nag).

The world today is integrally connected through four rapid connectivities. They are environment, people, economy, and ideas.

Under the leadership of Abdul Kalam, the project of IGMDP proved to be successful by producing missiles like first Prithvi missile in 1988 and then the Agni missile in 1989. Due to his contribution he was known as “Missile Man of India.”

In 1992, he was appointed as the Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister. With the rank of cabinet minister, in 1999, he was appointed as the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India.

Abdul Kalam played a major role in conducting the Pokhran-II, a series of five nuclear bomb test explosions in May 1998. With the success of these tests he got the status of a national hero and then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee declared India a full-fledged nuclear state.

Not this much, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam in 1998 proposed a countrywide plan called Technology Vision 2020 to make India a developed nation by the year 2020 and suggested nuclear empowerment, various technological innovations, improvement of agricultural productivity etc.

In 2002, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) was in power and nominate Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam for the post of the President of India. Being a popular national figure, he won the presidential election easily.

Do you know that Abdul Kalam with the cardiologist Soma Raju in 1998 developed a low cost coronary stent named as “Kalam-Raju Stent”. Further in 2012, a rugged tablet computer for health care in rural areas is designed which was named as “Kalam-Raju Tablet”.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam as a President of India (2002 to 2007)

– On 10 June 2002, the NDA government proposed Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam name for the presidential post to the Leader of opposition, Congress President Sonia Gandhi.

APJ Abdul Kalam as President of India
PRESIDENT APJ ABDUL KALAM AT THE CONCLUDING SESSION OF “PRAVASI BHARTIYA DIVAS” AT VUGYAN BHAVAN IN CAPITAL ON TUESDAY,PHOTO/RAVI BATRA 09 JAN 2007

– Dr. Abdul Kalam served as the President of India from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007. He was the first scientist and the first bachelor to occupy the Rashtrapati Bhawan.

A Leader must have a ‘Vision’ for an organisation, ‘Passion’ to work for achieving the goals, ‘Curiosity’ to travel an unexplored path and ‘Courage’ to take decisions.

– Do you know that in the presidential election he got approx 922,884 votes and defeated Lakshmi Sehgal.

– He became the 11th President of India by succeeding K.R Narayanan.

– He received the prestigious Bharat Ratna and became the third President to receive the highest civilian honour after Dr. Sarvapali Radhakrishnan in 1954 Dr. Zakir Hussain in 1963.

– Dr. Abdul Kalam was also known as People’s President.

– According to Dr. Kalam, the toughest decision taken by him as the President was signing the bill of office of Profit.

– Over the course of his five-year term, he remained committed to his vision of transforming India into a developed nation.

– He was however criticised for his inaction to decide the fate of 20 mercy petitions out of 21, including that of the Kashmiri Terrorist Afzal Guru, who was convicted for the parliament attacks in December 2001.

– He decided not to contest the Presidential election again in 2007 and stepped down as the president on 25 July 2007.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: Post Presidency

– After leaving the office, Dr. Abdul Kalam chosen the academic field and became a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, the Indian Institute of Management Indore, an honorary fellow of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

– He also served as the chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram, professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University and an adjunct at many other academic and research institutions across India.

When you speak, speak the truth; perform when you promise; discharge your trust… Withhold your hands from striking, and from taking that which is unlawful and bad.

– The information technology was also taught by him at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, and technology at Banaras Hindu University and Anna University.

– In 2011, he was criticised by civil groups over his stand on Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant as he had supported the establishment of the nuclear power plant and was accused of not speaking with the local people.

– ‘What Can I Give Movement’ a programme launched by Dr. Abdul Kalam for the youth of India with a central theme of defeating corruption.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: Death

APJ Abdul Kalam Death

On 27 July 2015, Dr. Abdul Kalam was delivering a lecture at IIM Shillong where he suffered a heart attack and his condition became critical, so, he was shifted to Bethany Hospital where thereafter, he died of cardiac arrest. His last words, to Srijan Pal Singh, were “Funny guy! Are you doing well?”

It is very easy to defeat someone, but it is very hard to win someone.

On 30 July, 2015, the former President was laid to rest at Rameshwaram’s Pei Karumbu Ground with State honours. Do you know that around 350,000 people attended the last ritual of Kalam, including the Prime Minister of India, the Governor of Tamil Nadu and the Chief Minister of Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh?

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam National Memorial

In the memory of late President Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam a memorial was built on his name at Pei Karumbu, in the island town of Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India. On 27 July, 2017 it was inaugurated by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi.

Do you know who built this memorial? It was built by Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO).

APJ Abdul Kalam Memorial

In the memorial various replica of rockets and missiles are kept which shows the work of Dr. Abdul Kalam. Also, some acrylic paintings about his life are also displayed along with hundreds of portraits which depict the life of Dr. Kalam.

At the entrance of the memorial a statue of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was placed showing him playing Veena a musical instrument. With this two more statues are there in sitting and standing posture.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: Awards and Achievements

– In 1981, Dr. Kalam received Padma Bhushan from the Government of India.

– In 1990, Dr. Kalam received Padma Vibhushan from Government of India.

– In 1994 and 1995, Distinguished Fellow and Honorary Fellow by Institute of Directors India and National Academy of Medical Sciences.

– In 1997, he had received Bharat Ratna from Government of India and Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration from Indian National Congress.

– In 1998, Veer Savarkar Award from Government of India.

– In 2000, Ramanujan Award from Alwars Research Centre, Chennai.

– In 2007, he was honoured with the King Charles II Medal by the Royal Society, U.K. and Doctorate of Science from University of Wolverhampton, UK.

– In 2008, he won the Hoover Medal given by ASME Foundation, USA and received Doctor of Engineering by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

– In 2009, The California Institute of Technology, U.S.A, presented Kalam with the International von Karman Wings Award, Hoover medal by ASME Foundation, USA and Honorary Doctorate by Oakland University.

– In 2010, Doctor of Engineering by University of Waterloo.

– In 2011, The IEEE honoured Kalam with IEEE Honorary Membership.

– In 2012, Doctor of Laws by Simon Fraser University.

– In 2013, Von Braun Award by the National Space Society.

– In 2014, Doctor of Science by the Edinburgh University, UK.

Sometimes, it is better to bunk a class and enjoy with friends, because now, when I look back, marks never make me laugh, but memories do.

– Dr. Kalam was the recipient of honorary doctorates from 40 universities.

– Also, Dr. Kalam’s 79th birthday was recognised as World Student’s Day by United Nations. He was also nominated for the MTV Youth icon of the Year in 2003 and in 2006.

– Following his death, he received several tributes like the Tamil Nadu State Government on 15 October that is on his birthday announced to observe across the state as “Youth Renaissance Day”. Further the State Government instituted the Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam Award constituting an 8 gm gold medal, a certificate and Rs 500,000.

– On an Independence Day, from 2015, the award will be awarded annually to the residents of the state with the achievements in promoting scientific growth, the humanities or the welfare of students.

– Also, the CBSE on the anniversary of Dr. Kalam’s birth set some topics on his name in the CBSE syllabus or expression series.

– Not only this, on 15 October, 2015 the 84th anniversary of Kalam’s birth, Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India released postage stamps commemorating Kalam at DRDO Bhawan in New Delhi.

– A new bacterium as the filters of the International Space Station (ISS) named it as Solibacilus Kalami to honour the late President Dr. Abdul Kalam was discovered by the Researchers at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: Legacy

As we know that Dr. Abdul Kalam was the youngest child in his family and was close to his parents and his brothers and sisters. He never married and served his relatives whole life. No doubt he was a very simple person with simple lifestyle. He owned a few possessions including veena and collection of books. He was a kind hearted man, a vegetarian and consumed simple food.

For a great men religion is a way of making friends; small people make religion a fighting tool.

According to S.M Khan who was close to Dr. Abdul Kalam wrote a book The Peoples President on Abdul Kalam says “He lived the life of a true Muslim but had high respect for all other religions and believed that humanism is the biggest quality of a human being. “He would perform namaaz everyday but also read Bhagwat Gita. Playing veena has nothing to do with religion. For him religion was a personal matter and used to emphasise that one should not make it a matter of pomp and show. He used to say in your dealings with the society you have to be a humanist. Dr. Kalam often used to cite the story of how his mentor Vikram Sarabhai asked for church land for scientific research and got it because the bishop believed that both science and spirituality seek the Almighty’s blessings for human prosperity, mind and body.”

While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong on 27 July 2015, he collapsed and was rushed to the Bethany Hospital, where he was confirmed dead of cardiac arrest and on 30 July 2015 last rituals were performed at Pei Karumbu Island, Rameswaram.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: Educational and Scientific Institutions

Do you know that various educational, scientific institutions and some locations are named in honour of Dr. Abdul Kalam. They are as follows:

– On the day of Kalam’s funeral, An agricultural college at Kishanganj, Bihar was renamed as the “Dr. Kalam Agricultural College, Kishanganj” by the Bihar State Government.

– Uttar Pradesh Technical University (UPTU) was renamed “A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University” by the Uttar Pradesh state government.

– A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Memorial Travancore Institute of Digestive Diseases, a new research institute in Kollam city, Kerala attached to the Travancore Medical College Hospital.

– In September 2014, India and US have launched the Fulbright-Kalam Climate Fellowship. The fellowship will be operated by the binational US-India Educational Foundation (USIEF) under the Fulbright programme.

– Kerala Technological University, headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram where Kalam lived for years, was renamed to A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technological University after his death.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Books

APJ Abdul Kalam Books

Source: www.careerindia.com

– India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium (co-authored with Yagnaswami Sundara Rajan, (1998)

– Wings of Fire: An Autobiography (1999)

– Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India (2002)

– The Luminous Sparks (2004)

– Mission India (2005)

– Inspiring Thoughts (2007)

– You Are Born To Blossom: Take My Journey Beyond (co-authored with Arun Tiwari, 2011)

– Envisioning and Empowered Nation

– Target 3 Billion by A.P.J. Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh (December 2011)

– Turning Points: A journey Through Challenges (2012)

– My Journey: Transforming Dreams into Actions (2013)

– A Manifesto for Change: A Sequel to India 2020 (co-authored with V. Ponraj, 2014)

– Reignited: Scientific Pathways to a Brighter Future by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh (2015)

– Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji (co-authored with Arun Tiwari, 2015)

– Advantage India: From Challenge to Opportunity by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh (2015)

– Governance for growth in India (2014)

Biographies on A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

– Eternal Quest: Life and Times of Dr. Kalam by S Chandra, 2002

– President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam by R K Pruthi, 2002

– A.P.J.Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India by K Bhushan and G Katyal, 2002

– The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President by P M Nair, 2008

– A Little Dream (Documentary film) by P. Dhanapal, (2008)

– My Days With Mahatma Abdul Kalam by Fr A K George, 2009

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: Famous Quotes

– “Don’t take rest after your first victory because if you fail in second, more lips are waiting to say that your first victory was just luck.”

– “Dream, dream, dream. Dreams transform into thoughts and thoughts result in action.”

– “If you fail, never give up because FAIL means “First Attempt in Learning”.

– “If you want to shine like a sun. First burn like a sun.”

– “All of us do not have equal talent. But, all of us have an equal opportunity to develop our talents.”

– “All Birds find shelter during a rain. But Eagle avoids rain by flying above the Clouds.”

– “Excellence is a continuous process and not an accident.”

– “Do we not realize that self respect comes with self reliance?”

– “My 2020 Vision for India is to transform it into a developed nation. That cannot be abstract; it is a lifeline.”…… etc.