Santosh9702 - Useful Info Always

The True Fathers Of the Indian Civilization

1. Father of Astronomy: Aryabhatta
work – Aryabhattiyam

2. Father of Astrology: Varahamihira
work – Panchasiddhantika, Bruhat Hora Shastra

3. Fathers of Surgery: Charaka and Sushruta
work – Samhitas

4. Father of Anatomy: Patanjali
work – Yogasutra

5. Father of Yoga : Patanjali
work – Yogasutra

6. Father of Economics: Chanakya
work – Arthashshtra

7. Father of Atomic theory: Rishi Kanada
Work – Kanada sutras

8. Father of Architecture : Vishwakarma

9. Father of Aero Dynamics: Mayasura
work – Vastu Darpana

10. Father of Medicine: Dhanvanthri
first propounded Ayurveda

11. Father of Grammar: Panini
Work – Vyakarana Deepika

12. Father of Natyashastra : Bharatamuni
work – Natyashastra

13. Father of Kavya (literature) : Krishna Dwaipayana (VedaVyasa)
work – Mahabharata, Ashtaadasha Puranas

14. Father of Playwriting : Kalidasa
work : Meghadhootam , Raghuvamsham , Kumara Sambhava etc etc;

15. Father of Ganita: Bhaskara II
work – Lilavati

16. Father of Warfare and Weaponry: Parashurama
works – Kalaripayatu, Sulba Sutras

17. Father of story writing: Vishnu Sharma
works – Panchatantra

18. Father of Politics: Chanakya
work – Arthashashtra, Nitishashtra

19. Father of Sexual Anatomy: Vatsyana
work – Kamasutra

20. Father of Philosophy: Sri Krishna
work – Sribhagavadgeeta

21. Father of Advaitha: Shankara
work – commentaries (Bhashyas), Panchadasi, Vivekachudamani

22. Father of Alchemy: Nagarjuna
work – Pragnaparamita Sutras


1.Brushed Aside (Phrasal Verb)-bar from attention or consideration. नज़रअंदाज़ करना

2.Atrocity (N)-a cruel and violent act. क्रूरता

3.Excreta (N)-waste matter discharged from the body, especially faeces and urine.

4.Disenfranchisement (N)-the state of being deprived of a right or privilege, especially the right to vote. मताधिकार

5.Intangible (Adj)-incapable of being touched or seen. अस्पृश्य

6.Entitlements (N)-the fact of having a right to something. अधिकार

7.Oblique (Adj)-indirect or evasive. अप्रत्यक्ष

8.Perennial (Adj)-lasting a very long time, or happening repeatedly or all the time.

9.Unbearable (Adj)-not able to be endured or tolerated. असहनीय

10.Cremate (V)-dispose of (a dead person’s body) by burning it to ashes. शव जलाना

11.Revulsion (N)-violent feeling of disgust. घृणा

12.Foment (V)-instigate or stir up (an undesirable or violent sentiment or course of action). भड़काना

13.Unequivocally (Adv)-in a way that leaves no doubt. स्पष्ट

14.Inflation (N)-a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money. मुद्रास्फीति

15.Mitigate (V)-to make something less harmful, unpleasant, or bad. कम करना

16.Downplaying (V)-make (something) appear less important than it really is.

17.Dissent (V)-to disagree with other people about something. असहमति

18.Glean (V)-to accumulate or collect.

19.Leeway (N)-freedom to act within certain limits. छूट

20.Tame (V)-to bring under control.

21.Went To Great Lengths (Phrase)-to try very hard to achieve something.

22.Transient (Adj)-lasting for a short time only. क्षणिक

23.Return To Its Feet (Phrase)-well or successful again after being ill or having problems.

24.Bottlenecks (N)-a problem that delays progress. बाधाओं

24.Fraternity (N)-a feeling of friendship and support. भाईचारा

25.Abolition (N)-the official end to a law, system, practice etc. उन्मूलन

26.Staving Off (Phrasal Verb)-to stop something bad from happening.

27.Civil Strife (N)-violent activity such as rioting or fighting in public places, especially involving many people.

28.Amphibious (Adj)-relating to, living in, or suited for both land and water.

29.Undernourishment (N)-not having enough food to develop or function normally. अल्पपोषित

30.Strife-Ridden (Adj)-divided by violent conflict or dissent.

31.Festering (Adj)-intended to cause hurt or distress.

32.Conspicuous (Adj)-obvious, marked, clear, undeniable, discernible. सुस्पष्ट

33.Salutary (Adj)-beneficial, useful, valuable, helpful, profitable. लाभदायक, हितकर

34.Accustomed (Adj)-familiar with something. अभ्यस्त

35.Embracing (V)-to accept something enthusiastically.

36.Endure (V)-to experience and bear something difficult, painful, or unpleasant. सहन करना

37.Retractable Roof (N)-a roof system designed to roll back the roof on tracks so that the interior of the facility is open to the outdoors.

38.Fore (N)-the most important or successful position.

39.Spruced Up (Phrasal Verb)-to make (someone or something) look cleaner, neater, or more attractive.

40.Slump (N)-a period of poor or losing play by a team or individual.

41.Culmination (N)-the highest point of achievement or excellence. पराकाष्ठा

42.Fortnight (N)-a period of two weeks.

43.Astute (Adj)-able to understand a situation quickly and see how to take advantage of it. चतुर

​​Can Lightening occur in Space?

Depends on what you mean by “lightning”. Yes, because charge can flow across vacuum, but No, because you won’t see anything.

Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge between regions of differing electric potential. It has been observed on Venus, Jupiter and Saturn, as well as Earth. In space, there is little material to act as a conductor of charge, so traditional lightning is probably rare. Processes similar to lightning have been observed in electro-magnetic fields around black holes, as well as in highly ionised clouds of gas and dust called Nebulae.

The visual effect that you see in the sky is actually a luminescent plasma that is left in the wake of the charge moving through the atmosphere. No atmosphere, no plasma, no light.

What is G Force Training?

High-G training is done by aviators and astronauts who are subject to high levels of acceleration (‘G’). It is designed to prevent a g-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC), a situation when the action of g-forces moves the blood away from the brain to the extent that consciousness is lost. Incidents of acceleration-induced loss of consciousness have caused fatal accidents in aircraft capable of sustaining high-g for considerable periods.
The value of training has been well established during the decades since the 1970s and has been the subject of much research and literature, and training has contributed to extending pilots’ G tolerance in both magnitude and duration.
Training includes centrifuge, Anti-G Straining Maneuvers (AGSM), and acceleration physiology.
A G-suit is worn by aviators and astronauts who are subject to high levels of acceleration (‘G’). It is designed to prevent a black-out and g-LOC (gravity-induced Loss Of Consciousness), due to the blood pooling in the lower part of the body when under G, thus depriving the brain of blood.

Are identical twins 100% genetically identical?

It is true that identical twins share their DNA code with each other. This is because identical twins were formed from the exact same sperm and egg from their father and mother. (In contrast, fraternal twins are formed from two different sperm and two different eggs.) Usually, the egg and sperm come together and create an embryo, which eventually grows into a human baby. However, in the case of identical twins, early in development, this embryo divides into two. This creates two babies rather than one.

While the two babies share the same DNA code, there is more to our genetics than just that. During development in the womb and after birth, our surroundings, exposures, and nutrition influence how our genes are expressed and how our bodies and minds develop. For example, two identical twins may have the same genes for height, but if one twin does not receive the same amount of nutrients while in the womb, it may be shorter than the other twin. We know also, that there are some changes to our genes that can happen during the embryonic period or during development. While this rarely happens, it makes it so that one identical twin may have a genetic condition, while the other twin does not. Our genetic code is a very large part of our genetic makeup, but there are other factors, genetic and environmental, that make us unique!

​​What Is an IQ Test?

An IQ test is an assessment that measures a range of cognitive abilities and provides a score that is intended to serve as a measure of an individual’s intellectual abilities and potential. IQ tests are among the most commonly administered psychological tests. In order to understand what these scores really mean, it is essential to look at exactly how these test scores are calculated. Today, many tests are standardized and scores are derived by comparing individual performance against the norms for the individual’s age group.

Historically, IQ tests have been scored in one of two ways. In the first method, a person’s mental age was divided by their chronological age and then multiplied by 100. The other methods involve comparing scores against the scores of others in the individual’s same age group. Many different tests are in use today including the afore mentioned Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, as well as the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Each individual test is different in terms of exactly what is being measured, how it is scored, and how these scores are interpreted.

​How do motorcyclists ride a wall of death?

The Wall of Death, also known as the motordrome is a large vertical barrel-shaped cylinder, usually made out of wood. Motorcyclists perform stunts while riding on the vertical wall. The Wall of Death is a popular travelling carnival act dating from the early-20th century, but there are just a few left today. The motorcyclist starts at the bottom with the crowd looking down into the drum. After ascending a ramp to gain speed, they then begin circling the vertical wall, held in place by centripetal force. There are three forces working on the motorcyclist: gravity, the wall and friction. The motorcyclist must maintain a constant speed to keep the vehicle’s direction of motion constantly changing. They must also lean up at an angle (with respect to the wall) while riding to keep the bike’s torque at zero. This impressive feat occasionally results in accidents if the rider gets too close to the top of the wall or fails to maintain the speed or angle necessary to stay up. British motorcycle racer and engineer Guy Martin smashed the Guinness World Records title for the Highest speed on a Wall of Death, travelling at a perilous 125.77 km/h!

​​How do Painkillers cure Headaches?

Different painkillers cure headaches in different ways. There are two key types of painkillers that are most commonly used. The first type of painkillers are Aspirin medicines includes ibuprofen and paracetamol, which blocks the body’s prostaglandins (the chemical that produces swelling and pain), reducing swelling in the area and therefore reducing the intensity of pain. These aspirin medicines are used frequently for mild to moderate headaches as they can only work up to a certain intensity of pain. The second type of painkillers are narcotic medicines includes morphine and codeine, which blocks the path of pain messages in the spinal cord and brain. These narcotic medicines are used for more severe pain. As both types of painkillers use different methods to treat pain, they can be combined, such as in codamol, which blends codeine and paracetamol.

​​What are Web Cookies and Why do Websites use Cookies?

A web cookie, also known as an internet cookie or a browser cookie, is a text file that contains information that the website needs to store relating to a particular visit or visitor. The file is stored on the user’s machine, can be deleted by the user, and can only be read by the user or the website that created the cookie. Cookies, and other forms of local storage, are vital to running a usable web. Without Cookies, websites wouldn’t remember our settings or logins, our preferences or what content we have already seen.
Without cookies, a website cannot pass any information from one pageview to another. For example, if a website like Facebook didn’t use cookies to remember logged in users then users would have to enter their username and password every time they clicked a link and loaded a new page. Cookies are a very normal part of the web and perfectly safe. Cookies will not cause harm to you or your devices and cannot “leak” private information about you. But, like many technologies, they can be abused. There is growing concern about the (mis)use of cookies and the effect this has on user privacy.

​​What is A Differential On A Car?

As part of the front and/or rear axle assembly, the differential plays an integral role in how your car makes turns. The differential is designed to drive a pair of wheels while allowing them to rotate at different speeds. This function provides proportional RPMs between the left and right wheels. If the inside tire rotates 15 RPM less in a turn than going straight, then, the outside tire will rotate 15 RPM more than going straight.
For example, when your vehicle goes around a corner, the wheel on the outside must travel faster than the wheel on the inside. The differential distributes equal amounts of torque to both wheels. This permits the wheels to react to resistance, or provide traction, to give the wheel more resistance to rotate less. The wheel with less resistance rotates faster.
Some vehicles, such as go-karts, are not equipped with a differential. In this case, both driving wheels are forced to rotate at the same speed, usually on a common axle driven by a simple chain-drive apparatus. Front wheel drive vehicles are designed differently in that the axle and differential assembly is located in the transmission axle assembly or transaxle.